In a current assessment printed in Vitamins, researchers reviewed current knowledge on the construction, extraction, well being advantages, and mechanisms of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides (DOPs).
Examine: Construction, Well being Advantages, Mechanisms, and Intestine Microbiota of Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharides: A Review. Picture Credit score: bennie/Shutterstock.com
DOPs are lively polysaccharides current in Dendrobium officinale, a conventional meals ingredient or natural medication in China.
DOPs can alter the intestine microbial composition and enzymatic degradation functionality of symbiotic bacterial organisms, which can impression the effectivity of dietary therapies. Information on the affiliation between DOPs and intestinal microbes are restricted.
Concerning the examine
Within the current examine, researchers studied the construction, extraction, organic features, underlying mechanisms, and associations of DOPs with intestine microbes.
Construction and extraction of DOPs
Dendrobium officinale, a Chinese language natural medication, has roughly 20% water-soluble, non-starchy, lively polysaccharides (DOPs).
These polysaccharides are principally heteropolysaccharides comprising mannose, glucose, xylose, galactose, rhamnose, and arabinose. Contemporary DOPs are cleaned, dried, and powdered in low thermal situations. Natural solvents are used to extract crude DOPs by eliminating low-molecular-weight compounds.
Ultrasound-aided extraction, sizzling water extraction (HWE), enzyme-aided extraction, microwave-aided extraction, mechanochemical-aided extraction, steam-aided flash extraction, and enzyme-aided extraction utilizing eutectic solvents are frequent extraction procedures. Among the many strategies, sizzling water extraction is mostly used as a result of its simplicity, ease, and security.
Greater yields are obtained with ultrasonic-assisted sizzling water extraction and freeze-thaw chilly urgent, whereas mechanochemical-assisted extraction enhances effectivity and reduces extraction time.
Deep eutectic solvent-based extraction is engaging as a result of its regular efficiency and fewer environmental points, whereas enzyme-assisted extraction provides light response situations and glorious effectivity.
Well being advantages and underlying mechanisms
DOPs might assist with metabolic issues reminiscent of weight problems, kind 2 diabetes, and irritation. DOPs alleviated metabolic abnormalities in C57BL/6 murine animals fed a high-fat food regimen (HFD) for 11 weeks, together with glutamine metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, Kreb cycle, butyrate metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. These results could also be partially transmitted by transplanting fecal microbes into high-fat diet-induced overweight murine animals.
DOPs additionally ameliorate mitochondrial impairment by growing phosphorylated AMP-stimulated protein kinase (p-AMPK) ranges and boosting citric acid cycle features.
They inhibit glucose metabolism and glycogen synthesis by activating the phosphoinositide-3-kinase-protein kinase (PI3K/Akt) signaling pathway, mediating the protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase/forkhead field O1 (Akt/FoxO1) signaling pathways to inhibit glycogen degradation, improve hepatic glycogen formation, inhibit hepatic gluconeogenesis, and regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ranges to enhance lipid metabolism.
In Wistar rats with kind 2 diabetes induced by streptozotocin, a 28-day therapy with two naturally acetylated glucomannans and DOPs corrected metabolic problems associated to lipids and glucose ranges.
DOPs carried out excellently, had been secure, and had no hazardous adversarial results in treating overweight murine animals at one gram per kg per day over 11 weeks.
DOPs restore intestinal barrier perform and protect the mucosal barrier of the gut. They increase the manufacturing of intestinal epithelial tight junction proteins, maintain the mucosal barrier secure, reduce lipopolysaccharide translocation, and decrease serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ranges.
They stimulate the nuclear issue erythroid-2 associated issue 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase (HO-1) signaling pathway in injured cells at inflammatory areas, decreasing oxidative harm and successfully controlling irritation.
Associations of DOPs with the intestinal microbiome
Intestine microbes course of DOPs within the colon, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and oligosaccharides that alter intestine microbial composition and enhance human well being. DOPs have been proven to lower dangerous micro organism like Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus whereas selling helpful ones like Bifidobacterium.
DOPs alter the composition and variety of the intestine microbiome and improve the synthesis of SCFAs reminiscent of acetate, propionate, and butyrate. This supplementation can restore intestine microbial stability and enhance microbial variety in overweight mice and mannequin animals, bringing the intestine microbiota nearer to a wholesome situation.
DOPs additionally have an effect on alterations within the intestine microbiota on the phylum degree, with weight problems linked to a drop within the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. DOPs can break down DOPs and create SCFAs, selling the event of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus microbial populations.
Frequent probiotic strains can even break down and devour DOPs, creating SCFAs, stopping pathogenic micro organism growth, and decreasing Akkermansia formation.
Based mostly on the assessment findings, DOPs can increase intestine well being as possible prebiotics, providing well being advantages like metabolism regulation, irritation modulation, immunity moderation, and most cancers intervention.
They will enhance intestine microbiome composition, providing new methods for metabolic and inflammatory ailments. Nonetheless, the affiliation between DOPs and the intestinal microbiome isn’t totally understood.
Future analysis ought to deal with DOPs’ growth-promoting impact on probiotics and their position in most cancers processes and immune exercise.