Home Men's Health Research challenges hyperlink between proton pump inhibitors and kidney illness danger

Research challenges hyperlink between proton pump inhibitors and kidney illness danger

Research challenges hyperlink between proton pump inhibitors and kidney illness danger


A current Scientific Experiences research investigates whether or not the affiliation between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the usage of histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) impacts the chance of continual kidney illness (CKD).

Study: Proton pump inhibitors and chronic kidney disease risk: A comparative study with histamine-2 receptor antagonists. Image Credit: Iryna Imago / Shutterstock.com Research: Proton pump inhibitors and continual kidney illness danger: A comparative research with histamine-2 receptor antagonists. Picture Credit score: Iryna Imago / Shutterstock.com


PPIs are some of the widespread medicines used to handle peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux illness. Mechanistically, PPIs irreversibly suppress hydrogen (H+)/potassium (Ok+)-ATPase within the abdomen and subsequently cut back acid secretion.

Along with the helpful results of PPI use, current research have highlighted a number of antagonistic results linked with the long-term use of this remedy. A number of the antagonistic outcomes of long-term PPI use embody acute kidney harm (AKI), hypomagnesemia, and acute tubular interstitial nephritis (ATIN).

Hundreds of thousands of individuals all through the world have been affected by CKD, which has a big impact on mortality, morbidity, and healthcare burden. It is very important elucidate the exact organic mechanism that correlates PPI use and the incidence of CKD.

In regards to the research

The present research explored the affiliation between long-term PPI use and the chance of CKD based mostly on the multicenter digital well being document (EHR) database and the Nationwide Well being Insurance coverage Service-Nationwide Pattern Cohort (NHIS-NSC). These datasets have been transformed to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Frequent Information Mannequin (OMOP-CDM) format.

Just lately, scientists have developed a standardized analysis community often known as the Frequent Information Mannequin (CDM), which affords a constant knowledge format. The standardized CDM-based vocabulary was designed by the Observational Well being Information Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) group.

The present research utilized a nationwide population-based cohort within the OMOP-CDM format for the evaluation. Grownup people who have been new customers of PPIs or H2RAs for over 180 days have been recruited.

Importantly, the research contributors have been utilizing one of many medicines with out a hole of greater than 30 days between prescriptions. Not one of the candidates had a historical past of glomerulonephritis, CKD, or kidney transplantation.

The goal cohort was uncovered to pantoprazole, dexlansoprazole, omeprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole, and lansoprazole. Subsequently, the comparative cohort obtained H2Ras, together with famotidine, cimetidine, ranitidine, and nizatidine.

Research findings

A complete of 1,125,700 contributors have been included within the NHIS-NSC CDM database between 2002 and 2013, whereas the six-hospital CDM databases supplied extra intensive knowledge, comprising 10,083,608 topics between 1999 and 2018. To regulate for potential confounding components and stability the baseline traits between PPI and H2RA teams, large-scale propensity rating matching (PSM) was carried out. Based mostly on eligibility, 5,967 contributors have been chosen for each teams.

PPI use was not related to an elevated danger of CKD in comparison with H2RAs. Though earlier research have indicated an affiliation between PPI use and the incidence of CKD, the mechanism accountable for this affiliation remained elusive.

It’s potential that unclear mechanisms and contradictory observational research resulted within the hyperlink between long-term PPI use and CKD. As well as, these research failed to find out the length and amount of PPI use that elevated the chance of creating CKD.

The sensitivity evaluation revealed that sufferers who used PPIs for a chronic interval of greater than one year might need a decrease propensity to develop CKD as in comparison with people utilizing H2RAs. Importantly, this commentary was not statistically vital.

A subgroup evaluation that included sufferers with diabetic mellitus (DM) from each databases was additionally performed. To this finish, no vital hyperlink between PPI use and CKD danger as in comparison with H2RA use was noticed.

PPI use had no vital impact on DM sufferers with regard to the chance of CKD improvement. Notably, this commentary was based mostly on the estimated glomerular filtration charge (eGFR) of six-hospital CDM databases alone, as this knowledge was unavailable within the NHIS-CDM database. The restricted knowledge affected the generalizability of the security profile of PPIs in extremely weak teams and would require additional validation.


The present research has some limitations, together with the presence of unmeasured confounding components, which might have an effect on the hyperlink between PPI use and CKD improvement. For instance, the researchers didn’t take into account way of life components akin to bodily exercise, smoking, or alcohol consumption that would positively affect the incidence of CKD.

One other limitation was the idea that H2RA use doesn’t affect CKD improvement. Because the present research didn’t embody sufferers with confirmed CKD, the exact impact of PPI use was unclear.


The current research supplied vital insights into the affiliation between PPI use and CKD improvement. There was no vital affiliation between long-term use of PPIs and CKD improvement in comparison with H2RA use. Contemplating that diabetes is a possible danger issue for CKD, the security profile of PPIs for this group of people might positively assist in medical decision-making.

Journal reference:

  • Kweon, T., Kim, Y., Lee, Ok. J., et al. (2023) Proton pump inhibitors and continual kidney illness danger: A comparative research with histamine-2 receptor antagonists. Scientific Experiences 13(1); 1-11. doi:10.1038/s41598-023-48430-9



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