Home Men's Health Alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant urogenital infections in Greece, research reveals escalating resistance traits

Alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant urogenital infections in Greece, research reveals escalating resistance traits

Alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant urogenital infections in Greece, research reveals escalating resistance traits


In a current research revealed in The Journal of Antibiotics, a bunch of researchers analyzed the traits in antimicrobial resistance amongst urogenital Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) and Ureaplasma species in Greece, using 2,992 Ureaplasma spp. and 371 M. hominis isolates from 2014 to 2022, assessing their sensitivity to varied antibiotics.

Study: Antimicrobial resistance rates of urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: results from a Greek survey, 2014 to 2022. Image Credit: Fahroni/Shutterstock.comExamine: Antimicrobial resistance charges of urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma species earlier than and throughout the COVID-19 pandemic: outcomes from a Greek survey, 2014 to 2022. Picture Credit score: Fahroni/Shutterstock.com


M. hominis and Ureaplasma species, a part of the Mollicutes group, are notable for his or her lack of a cell wall, making them undetectable by Gram staining and nesessitating polymerase chain response (PCR) for prognosis.

They embrace many species of organisms generally inhabiting the genital observe and believed to contribute to sure urological infections and being pregnant problems. However, it’s tough to distinguish between colonization and an infection.

These pathogens have a singular cell construction that makes them immune to penicillin or different medicine focusing on cell wall synthesis, relying as a substitute on brokers that intrude with protein synthesis or topoisomerases.

Of current curiosity is the rising resistance to those therapies, producing nice apprehension amongst clinicians. The mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis are usually not absolutely understood, and additional research are essential to assess the affect of antibiotic overuse and the efficacy of present remedy regimens.

Concerning the research 

The current research’s strategies concerned a retrospective descriptive evaluation of medical laboratory data from the ‘Bioiatriki’ Healthcare Heart and Leto Basic Maternity and Gynecology Clinic S.A. in Athens, Greece.

The info spanned from 2014 to 2022 for Ureaplasma spp. and from 2016 to mid-2022 for M. hominis. The topics included symptomatic sufferers with genito-urethral complaints and asymptomatic people present process common genital healthcare screening.

Common versatile cotton swabs have been utilized to gather scientific samples from totally different websites of  males, resembling urethra, urine, semen, expressed prostatic secretions; feminine samples have been obtained from the cervix, urethra, and urine.

After 4 hours, these samples have been cultured aerobically for a interval of 48 hours in an incubator set at 37 levels Celsius utilizing a Mycoplasma DUO equipment. Pink discoloration from yellow, with out disrupting a medium cloud improvement, indicated mycoplasma species. The SIR Mycoplasma equipment examined Antibiotic sensitivity in U9 or arginine broth for U. urealyticum or M. hominis.

Examined antibiotics included azithromycin, josamycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, pristinamycin, and ofloxacin. Mycoplasma grew, producing ammonia that modified the medium to alkaline which brought about discoloration of the medium. When the microorganisms have been delicate to the examined antibiotics, metabolism was inhibited, and the medium remained yellow.

Descriptive statistics have been utilized in knowledge evaluation, with outcomes expressed as frequencies and percentages of resistance for given age classes and annual resistance per antimicrobial agent. Graphic illustration of traits in antimicrobial resistance from 2014 to 2022 confirmed adjustments throughout the stipulated interval.

Susceptibility, intermediate resistance, and resistance proportions for M. hominis and Ureaplasma spp. have been included within the sensitivity evaluation throughout the assorted antibiotics.

Examine outcomes 

Within the research, a complete of two,992 Ureaplasma spp. Isolates and 371 M. hominis isolates have been analyzed from 2014 to 2022. The outcomes confirmed notable traits in antimicrobial resistance for each pathogens.

Ureaplasma spp. had excessive susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, pristinamycin, tetracycline, and josamycin, with intermediate susceptibility to erythromycin. Nonetheless, a dramatic improve in resistance to clindamycin was famous, rising from 60% in 2014 to a highest of 98.46% in 2021. Moreover, erythromycin resistance escalated from 9.54% in 2018 to 22.13% in 2021.

M. hominis exhibited a unique resistance sample, with persistently excessive resistance charges to erythromycin. The resistance to azithromycin additionally considerably elevated over time, from 52.78% in 2017 to 97.22% in 2022. This pattern is especially alarming given the final reliance on these antibiotics for remedy.

The research highlighted the escalating subject of antibiotic-resistant urogenital mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas in Greece, elevating issues about antibiotic overconsumption.

The noticed traits counsel a necessity for efficient management measures, together with correct antibiotic stewardship insurance policies, nationwide surveillance methods, and applicable culture-based remedy insurance policies to handle this rising danger.

The info additionally underscored the significance of repeatedly monitoring and reporting resistance patterns to information scientific decision-making.

The numerous improve in resistance to generally used antibiotics, resembling clindamycin and erythromycin, factors to the pressing have to develop new therapeutic methods and tips to successfully deal with infections brought on by these pathogens.

The research’s findings are essential for understanding the evolving resistance patterns and informing public well being methods to fight the rising menace of antimicrobial resistance within the area.


To summarize, this analysis is among the largest assessments of antimicrobial resistance patterns of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma within the genitourinary tract.

It was noticed that, regardless of the excessive use of azithromycin throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the charges of resistance to azithromycin and erythromycin towards Ureaplasma spp. remained low.

Nonetheless, erythromycin and azithromycin resistance towards M. hominis remained excessive. Most Ureaplasma isolates demonstrated excessive susceptibility to a number of antibiotics, whereas M. hominis confirmed excessive resistance to erythromycin and azithromycin. This resistance might be attributed to the overconsumption of antibiotics. 



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